Application of Technology in Validation of Examination in Developing Economies: Kenya’s Context

Application of Technology in Validation of Examination in Developing Economies: Kenya’s Context

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Application of Technology in Validation of Examination in Developing Economies: Kenya’s Context

The validity of examinations has continued to attract attention only among researchers but alsopractitioners. The concern today is how technology can be used to improve the validity ofexamination results. The main purpose of this paper was to examine the application oftechnology in validation of examination in Kenya’,s context. The paper was guided by thefollowing specific objectives: to examine the application of technology in validation ofexamination, to find out the challenges involved in technology adoption in examinationvalidation and to recommend what can be done to address technological application issues invalidation of examination. The paper used secondary data based on past literature. Use ofsecondary data was informed by the following reasons: provides ease in terms of time, offers acost-effective way of gaining a broad understanding of research questions and the data aredeemed important in providing a ground for designing subsequent primary research. The sourcesof the secondary data for this study included official statistics, government portals, technicalreports, scholarly journals, empirical articles and literature review articles. In order to ensure thevalidity of data and sources, the researcher determined the original purpose of the reviewdocuments, ascertained the credentials of the source(s) and author(s) of the information,considered the date of publication, examined the coverage of the documents and establishedwhether the documents were well referenced. Critical review approach was used in the analysisof the secondary data. The review revealed that there are various stages of examination wheretechnology can be applied. These include examination development, printing and packing of theexamination, field administration, and processing and examination results release stages. The keychallenges facing technological application include competencies gaps, technology usabilitylimitation, cost factor issue and technology reliability issue. Based on the findings, there is needfor developing countries like Kenya to adopt policies that are geared towards embracing the bestpractices in technology application in order to enhance validation of examination in its totality ,Keywords: examination validity, technology application, technology challenges.

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