A multidimensional approach to the identification of test bias: exploration of three multiple-choice SSC papers in Pakistan

A multidimensional approach to the identification of test bias: exploration of three multiple-choice SSC papers in Pakistan

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A multidimensional approach to the identification of test bias: exploration of three multiple-choice SSC papers in Pakistan

In Pakistan, the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination is a high-stakes national qualification at grade-ten. Consequently, fairness of SSC tests is an issue of concern among public and educational policy planners.  ,During the test development process, substantive review is generally practised but the statistical aspect of test-fairness is an evolving topic among the examination authorities of the country.This study is a first ever attempt, at the national level in Pakistan, to examine test-fairness using multidimensional Differential Item functioning (DIF) and Differential bundle functioning (DBF) procedures. The 2011 cohort of SSC examinees from Aga Khan University Examination Board (AKU-EB) is studied and multiple choice tests in three core subjects, English, Mathematics and Physics, are investigated for possible gender bias. All tests are based on National Curriculum (2006) guidelines from Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing), Government of Pakistan. ,The outcome from this study is expected to provide evidence of test fairness which will enhance test development practices in examination authorities of Pakistan and elsewhere.Keywords: Validity, Multiple-Choice, Differential Item, Bias, SIBTEST

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